Fetching a remote
When working with other people's repositories, there are a few basic Git commands to remember:
These commands are very useful when interacting with a remote repository.
fetch download remote code from a repository's remote URL to your local
merge is used to merge different people's work together with yours,
pull is a combination of
We'll go in-depth on these commands below.
To grab a complete copy of another user's repository, use
git clonelike this:
$ git clone https://github.com/USERNAME/REPOSITORY.git # Clones a repository to your computer
You can choose from several different URLs when cloning a repository. While logged in to GitHub, these URLs are available below the repository details:
When you run
git clone, the following actions occur:
- A new folder called
- It is initialized as a Git repository
- A remote named
originis created, pointing to the URL you cloned from
- All of the repository's files and commits are downloaded there
- The default branch (usually called
master) is checked out
For every branch
foo in the remote repository, a corresponding remote-tracking branch
refs/remotes/origin/foo is created in your local repository. You can usually abbreviate
such remote-tracking branch names to
git fetch to retrieve new work done by other people. Fetching from a
repository grabs all the new remote-tracking branches and tags without
merging those changes into your own branches.
If you already have a local repositorywith a remote URLset up for the desired project, you can grab all the new information by using
git fetch *remotename* in the terminal:
$ git fetch remotename # Fetches updates made to a remote repository
Otherwise, you can always add a new remoteand then fetch.
Merging combines your local changes with changes made by others.
Typically, you'd merge a remote-tracking branch (i.e., a branch fetched from a remote repository) with your local branch:
$ git merge remotename/branchname # Merges updates made online with your local work
git pull is a convenient shortcut for completing both
git fetch and
git mergein the same command:
$ git pull remotename branchname # Grabs online updates and merges them with your local work
pull performs a merge on the retrieved changes, you should ensure that
your local work is committed before running the
pull command. If you run intoa merge conflictyou cannot resolve, or if you decide to quit the merge, you can use
git merge --abortto take the branch back to where it was in before you pulled.