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Core concepts for GitHub Actions

Below is a list of common GitHub 操作 terms we use across our sites and GitHub 操作 documentation.

GitHub 操作 is available with GitHub Free, GitHub Pro, GitHub Team, and GitHub Enterprise Cloud. GitHub 操作 is unavailable for per-repository plans, which are legacy billing plans. For more information, see "GitHub's products."

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操作

Individual tasks that you combine as steps to create a job. Actions are the smallest portable building block of a workflow. You can create your own actions, use actions shared from the GitHub community, and customize public actions. To use an action in a workflow, you must include it as a step.

Artifact

构件是创建并测试代码时所创建的文件。 例如,构件可能包含二进制或包文件、测试结果、屏幕截图或日志文件。 Artifacts are associated with the workflow run where they were created and can be used by another job or deployed.

Continuous integration (CI)

The software development practice of frequently committing small code changes to a shared repository. With GitHub 操作, you can create custom CI workflows that automate building and testing your code. From your repository, you can view the status of your code changes and detailed logs for each action in your workflow. CI saves developers time by providing immediate feedback on code changes to detect and resolve bugs faster.

Continuous deployment (CD)

Continuous deployment builds on continuous integration. When new code is committed and passes your CI tests, the code is automatically deployed to production. With GitHub 操作, you can create custom CD workflows to automatically deploy your code to any cloud, self-hosted service, or platform from your repository. CD saves developers time by automating the deployment process and deploys tested, stable code changes more quickly to your customers.

Event

A specific activity that triggers a workflow run. For example, activity can originate from GitHub when someone pushes a commit to a repository or when an issue or pull request is created. You can also configure a workflow to run when an external event occurs using the repository dispatch webhook.

GitHub-hosted runner

GitHub hosts Linux, Windows, and macOS runners. Jobs run in a fresh instance of a virtual machine that includes commonly-used, preinstalled software. GitHub performs all upgrades and maintenance of GitHub-hosted runners. You cannot customize the hardware configuration of GitHub-hosted runners. For more information, see "Virtual environments for GitHub-hosted runners."

作业

A defined task made up of steps. Each job is run in a fresh instance of the virtual environment. You can define the dependency rules for how jobs run in a workflow file. Jobs can run at the same time in parallel or be dependent on the status of a previous job and run sequentially. For example, a workflow can have two sequential jobs that build and test code, where the test job is dependent on the status of the build job. If the build job fails, the test job will not run.

Runner

Any machine with the GitHub 操作 runner application installed. You can use a runner hosted by GitHub or host your own runner. A runner waits for available jobs. When a runner picks up a job, it runs the job's actions and reports the progress, logs, and final results back to GitHub. Runners run one job at a time. For more information, see "GitHub-hosted runner" and "Self-hosted runner."

Self-hosted runner

A machine you manage and maintain with the runner application installed. Self-hosted runners offer more control of hardware, operating system, and software tools than GitHub-hosted runners provide. With self-hosted runners, you can choose to create a custom hardware configuration with more processing power or memory to run larger jobs, install software available on your local network, and choose an operating system not offered by GitHub-hosted runners. For more information, see "Hosting your own runners."

步骤

A step is a set of tasks performed by a job. Each step in a job executes in the same virtual environment, allowing the actions in that job to share information using the filesystem. Steps can run commands or actions.

虚拟环境

The virtual environment of a GitHub-hosted runner includes the virtual machine's hardware configuration, operating system, and installed software. For more information, see "Virtual environments for GitHub-hosted runners."

工作流程

您可以在仓库中创建的可配置自动化流程,用于在 GitHub 上构建、测试、封装、发行或部署任何项目。 工作流程由一项或多项作业组成,可以计划或由事件激活。

工作流程文件

定义至少有一项作业的工作流程配置的 YAML 文件。 此文件位于 GitHub 仓库根目录的 .github/workflows 目录下。

工作流程运行

当预配置的事件发生时运行的工作流程实例。 您可以查看每个工作流程运行的作业、操作、日志和状态。

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